בשבתנחמו קורין עשרת הדברות, ובשבועות קורין גם כן עשרת הדברות, כי בשבועות נתן הקדוש ברוך הוא תורה לישראל, וכן כשיבא משיח צדקינו כתיב (ישעיה נא,ד) תורה חדשה מאתי תצא לכן קורין עשרת הדברות בשבת נחמו: קדושת לוי - שבת נחמו
The Giving of the Torah During the Time of Moshiach
On Shabbos Nachamu we read the ten commandments. And on Shavous we also read the ten commandments. This is because on Shavous the Holy One gave the Torah to Bnei Yisroel. And similarly regarding when our righteous Moshiach arrives it is written that (Yeshaya 51:4; VaYikra Rabbah 13:3) "A new Torah will come forth from Me." Therefore we read the ten commandments on Shabbos Nachamu as well.
Remembering Our Father
"There were no other days as good for Bnei Yisroel as the the 15th of Av and Yom Kippur." (Taanis 26b)
This can be explained based on the verse (Shemos 17:8) "Amalek came and battled Israel in Refidim." Before this it is written (ibid 17:7) "Is Hashem among us or not?"
This can be understood by the following parable:
A son was on his father's shoulders, he sicked the dog on him etc. (See Rashi ibid; Pesikta Rabbasi 13) "The parasha of Amalek follows the previous verse asking whether Hashem is among us or not? To teach us that Hashem says I am always among you and I am found ready to fulfill all of your needs and how can you ask if Hashem is among you or not? By your life! A dog shall come and bite you and you shall cry out to me and then you will know where I am! This can be compared to a parable a father went out on a journey with his son on his shoulders. If the son saw an object he desired he said father give me this thing and he would give it to him. This repeated itself a second and third time. They happened upon a man and the son asked him, have you seen my father? The father said to his son, don't you know where I am? He threw him off his shoulders, and a dog came and bit him."
We see that the father frighten his son in order to remind him that he has a father who can save him from that frightening thing. And as soon as he knows that he has a father then his father draws him close in many ways to demonstrate that closeness.
This is why this month is called Av – which means father, and why our temple was destroyed during this month, in order to remind us of our Father.l Once we recognize this fact and this knowledge will penetrate into us then the Holy One will rebuild the beis hamikdash.
The Gemara explains (ibid) regarding Tu BeAv that it is a time [of happiness since it is] when the tribes were allowed to intermarry. . . Study it at length.
. . . Each and every tribe has its own special way and path, (Pri Etz Chaim Shaar Tefillah). Down here below this is represented by a hue for each tribe as the colors of the precious stones found in the Choshen, the Kohen Gadol's breastplate. Each color of each stone represented the unique character of each tribe as is known. (Rabbeinu Bachaya Shemos 28:15)1 When all the ribes reach the level of self nullification and effacement known as Ayin then all the colors mix and intermingle together with eachother. Now when the Jewish people grasp the understanding that (though we are different and unique individuals) we all have one father, this is the meaning of [Tu BeAv being] a day when the tribes were allowed to intermarry. It alludes to what we explained.
1. The Rabbeinu Bachaya in his commentary to Shemos 28:15 explains that it is a Kabbalistic wonder how each one of the tribes was given a colored stone for the Choshen which matches their attribute up above. He then matches the stones and their colors to the attributes and characteristics of each tribe according to Kabbalah.
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